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Lesson 9

Tigrigna Equivalent of the Definite Article

TgriNa GRAMMAR (9)

Goitom Ahferom (@germany.net) [Author Profile]
Wednesday, December 17, 1997 03:41 AM PST
raw  thread

selam dehaiers!

Our todays Grammar topic will be the definite article
and demonstrative pronouns in TgriNa.

DEFINETE ARTICLE / DEMONSTRATIVE
PRONOUNS
============================================

In TgriNa there is no definite article used in quite the
same way as the English ^ the ^ , it uses instead the
demonstrative pronouns or demonstrative adjectives as
an article. This demonstrative pronouns corresponds
to the English ^ this or that ^. Therefore you put the
corresponding demonstrative pronouns before noun or
adjective. As you have seen from the personal
pronouns, TgriNa has got also two genders in relation
to demonstrative pronouns, like izi geza (masculine)
^this house ^ and izia computer (feminine)
^ this computer ^; and there is also demonstrative
pronouns for plural and formal ones.

Likewise there is also demonstrative pronouns that
correspond to the English ^ that ^; iti geza (masculine)
^ that house ^ and itia computer (feminine) ^that
computer ^. And there are also forms for plural as
well as for formal ones.

Here are demonstrative pronouns according to persons
in singular, plural and formal form that corresponds to
the English ^ this^:

*****************************************************************
Singular *
----------------------------------------------------------------*
*
2. Person (masculine) izi this *
2. Person (feminine) izi-a this *
________________________________________________________________*
* Plural *
----------------------------------------------------------------*
2. Person izi-atom these *
2. Person (feminine) izi-aten these *
________________________________________________________________*
* Formal *
----------------------------------------------------------------*
2. Person (masculine) izi-om this *
2. Person (feminine) izi-en this *
*
*****************************************************************

And demonstrative pronouns that corresponds to the
English
^ that ^ are:

*****************************************************************
Singular
----------------------------------------------------------------*
2. Person (masculine) iti that *
2. Person (feminine) iti-a that *
________________________________________________________________*
* Plural *
----------------------------------------------------------------*
2. Person iti-atom those *
2. Person (feminine) iti-aten those *
________________________________________________________________*
* Formal *
----------------------------------------------------------------*
2. Person (masculine) iti-om that *
2. Person (feminine) iti-en that *
*
*****************************************************************

Examples: (Lit. = Literally)
================================

izi geza iyu. This is a house. (Lit.: This house is-he.)
izi-a computer iya. This is a computer. (Lit.:
This(f.)computer is-she.)

izi-atom eritra-wiyan iyom These are
eriteans.(Lit.:These eritreans are-they.) izi-aten
eritra-wiyan iyen. These (f.) are eriteans.(Lit.:These
eritreans are-th 
ey.)

izi-om mem'hir iyom. This is a teacher. (Lit.: This(m.
pol.) teacher is-h 
e.) 
izi.en mem'hir iyen. This(f.)is a teacher.(Lit.:This
(f.pol.)teacher is-s 
he.)

iti Haw-Ka iyu. 0 DnYI"+$Z.H^+.H1rother. (Lit.:
That brother-yours is-h e.) 
iti-a ade-Ki iya. That(f.)is your(f.)mother.(Lit.:That
mother-yours is
-she.)

iti-atom eritra-wiyan iyom Those are eriteans.
(Lit.:Those eritreans are-they.) 
iti-aten eritra-wiyan iyen. Those(f.) are
eriteans.(Lit.:Those eritreans are-the 
y.)

iti-om mem'hir iyom. That is a teacher. (Lit.:That
(m.pol.)teacher is-he.
) 
iti.en mem'hir iyen. That(f.)is a
teacher.(Lit.:That(f.pol.)teacher is-sh 
e.)

Asking a question (Q.: Question, and A.: Answer)
======================================================

Q. izi men iyu? who is this? (Lit.: This who is-he?) A.
izi eritrawi iyu. he is an eritrean. (Lit.: This eritrean
is-he.) Q. izi-a men iya? who is this (f.)? (Lit.: This
(f.) who is-she?) A. izi-a eritrawi-t iya. she is an
eritean. (Lit.:This (f.)an eritrean is-she
.)

Q. iti in'tay iyu? what is that? (Lit.: That what is-he?)
A. iti geza iyu. that is a house. (Lit.: That house
is-he.)

Q. isiKum k'n'dey iKum? how many are
you?(Lit.:you(plural)how-many are-you?) 
A. n'Hna aserte ina. we are ten. (Lit.: we 10 are-we.)
etc...

Now, using words that you already know you can
make sooooo many examples by forming question and
answers. You can apply the question words that I
have posted last time.

Have fun.

Goitom Ahferom 
Bonn -Germany