Review 3, Spring 2017


The format will be similar to the other exams.

Short answers: Choose 2 of 7

            Essay: choose 1 of 2.


List of Terms:

(Terms with an (*) are discussed in the readings)



I. Political Culture and Political Development:


*democracy and inequality

*democracy and religion

*democracy and socialist economics

*High tech economy and staggering poverty

*diversity, yet Hindu Brahmin rule   

National parties (Congress/BJP) vs. Regional parties

            But neither of the two national parties can get to 272 by itself -- coalitions




            *as a strength

            * as a weakness



*India as an idea




            *pluralist nature of Hinduism

*Caste system

                        Brahmins (Priests)

                        Warriors (Kahtriyas)

                        Landowners, Merchants (Vaishyas)

                        Dirty Farmers (Sudras)

                        Untouchables (Dalits, Harijans)

*Affirmative Action for lower castes

            *Bhimrao Ambedkar

            *his experience as a Dalit

            *his ideas in the Indian constitution

            *untouchability outlawed




*British East India Company

Indian Mutiny and Direct Colonial Rule


Gradual inclusion of Indian's in administrative structure

Indian National Congress created

Factional Struggle in INC: The factions

Impact of Gandhi's leadership on INC

            ending factional strife: non-violence but independence now

            Becoming mass movement

            new strategy -- non-violence

Minority independence movements (Muslim League)

Independence, partition, and violence

Kashmir and wars with Pakistan


II. Actors and Processes


A. Government Structure



            Rajya Sabha -- upper house

Lok Sabha -- lower house

                        role in choosing Prime Minister and no-confidence motions against PM


                        *Example of 1996 election and choosing the PM

No Confidence vote

*Prime Minister and Cabinet


Congress Party


*Economic policy

            *Nehru’s socialism

*Ideology: complete separation of church and state

*Nehru Dynasty

*Sonia Gandhi and attempts to make her nationality a factor


Bharatiya Janata Party


*extremist past and allies


*BJP challenge to Indian secularism

*original anti-Muslim

*L. K. Advani’s ideas

*BJP and women


Public Policy

*Nehru's Socialism

            *National Planning Commission

            *the impact on entrepreneurship

            *License Raj/permit raj

            *”Hindu Rate of Growth”

*Economic Problems of late 1980s/early 1990s



            Kashmir crisis

*Rao's economic reforms

            *Finance Minister: Manmohan Singh

            *the economic reforms

                        *allowing foreign investment


                        *less government control/free markets

*The results


Political Periods:

1. Congress Years: 1947-1991

Indian National Congress/Congress Party

*Nehru Dynasty

*Jawaharlal Nehru

*Dynasty supporters vs. opponents

*Indira Gandhi as PM

*The Emergency 1975-1977

*Defeat 1977

*Indira Gandhi Assassination

*Rajiv Gandhi and Assassination

1991 Congress victory

*P. V. Narasimha Rao

*Manmohan Singh

*Rao’s and Singh’s reforms


*Continuing the dynasty:

*Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi


2. Years of Competition

Why did Congress lose support?

Nehru Dynasty gone

*Economic reform

*Corruption in Congress

*Rise of regional and religious parties


*Rise of BJP

*1996 elections and failure to form a government

*1998 and victory

            Nuclear tests

            *Nationalism and India as a global power

*BJP moderates most of its stands

            *Attracting Muslims

            *Slowing, not stopping economic reforms

*A. B. Vajpayee

*National Democratic Alliance


*1999 elections

*2004 election

            United Progressive Alliance

            Sonia Gandhi leading Congress Party

            *Congress ideas: economic reform for everyone

            *poor haven’t benefited from reforms

*New PM Manmohan Singh


*2009 Elections: Congress returns


*2014 Election

*Narendra Modi

            *his controversial past (riots of 2002)

*Rahul Gandhi