POLI/INTL 105: Review Sheet Exam 2: Summer 2014

Bill Newmann

The exam format will be the same as the previous exam: 60 multiple-choice questions

Terms that are preceded by an asterisk (*) are dealt with in the readings!


List of Terms:


War and Peace:

Clausewitz major premise about war and politics


Causes of War and Peace:

1. Human Nature: Individual level of analysis

War as human nature

learning peace?


*2. Balance of Power: Realism: system level

Number of poles of power

*War caused by imbalance of power

WW I caused by an imbalance of power

*Peace achieved through stable balance of power

Concert of Europe


3. *Power Transition/Long Cycle Theory: Realism: system level

*peace imposed by a dominant power

*war caused by challenges to that dominant power

The 100 year cycle of war and peace

Implications (US decline?)

*US hegemonic power (American Dominance)

*China as the rising challenger?


4. Nuclear Revolution (individual level as people fear nuclear war or state level as state power prevents war)

Peace caused by the fear of nuclear weapons

War caused by irrational, outlaw states

Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea


5. Interdependence: Idealism: (system or state level)

Global Economic Marketplace as cause of peace

Free Trade


war caused by outsiders, non-free traders, closed economies


6. Democratization: Idealism: (state level)

*Democracies don’t fight each other

Reasons why?

Democracies fight non-democracies

Democratizing states as more likely to fight wars

Nationalism and the transition to democracy

Germany, Japan, Serbia (Yugoslavia in the 1990s)



state (territorial entity)

government: type and regime


Interaction among characteristics (nation-state fit)

nation-state fit and nationalism


Ethno-nationalist wars





Social theories

Economic theories

Political theories

*Transnational actors

*non-governmental organizations

*non-state actor

Global marketplace


*wars today: mostly civil war, ethnic conflict


International Organizations


End of the nation-state system

*War today: civil, ethnic, religious



global organizations

*Regional Organization

*European Union

*nonstate actor

League of Nations

failure of League and coming of WW II

*IGOs and sovereignty


United Nations

*UN Charter

            Article 2

*UN General Assembly

            trends in UN membership and why was there an increase since 1945

            *voting procedures

*UN Security Council

            *voting procedures

            *Permanent 5 and veto

*UN Secretary General


Ban Ki-Moon




UN Functions concerning security (issues of conflict and cooperation):

1. *Collective Security

*Chapter 7 of the UN Charter

*Collective Security during the Cold War: No consensus at the UNSC

*Collective security after the Cold War: the Persian Gulf War

2. Peacekeeping

*Chapter 6

Border/Decolonization problems

Consent rule

3. *Peacekeeping after the cold war


Cambodia: UNTAC

*Post-conflict reconstruction

4. *Peace Making/Enforcement:        

            *Responsibility to Protect (R2P)

*Somalia and Rwanda; Bosnia and Kosovo

*ethnic cleansing

*Failed states

Lessons of Peace Enforcement (see PPT slide)

*European Union




            Transnational advocacy networks

The impact of globalization on NGOs

Impact of communications revolution

*Universal Declaration on Human Rights

*Human Rights Regimes

Good News


Lobbying and action-oriented NGOs

            Human Rights Watch

*Amnesty International

            International Campaign to Ban Land Mines


NGOs: The Bad News


*US Global War on Terror

*Al-Qaeda: An NGO that uses violence to make its point

*terrorism and the levels of analysis

*How globalization makes terrorism possible

September 11, 2001

*Definitions of terrorism: Purposes: to cause pain that will lead to a change in governmental policy

  1. political agenda
  2. Violence the method of achieving political goals

a)      *asymmetric warfare

  1. Deliberate targeting of civilians
  2. Publicity: use of media coverage

Who attacked on 9/11?

*Osama bin Laden

*Al-Qaeda (AQ) terrorist organization

Chart: Origins of Recent Terrorism

            *Iranian Revolution

            Saudi sponsored schools        

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

            The fight against the Soviets: mujahadin, foreign fighters, aid from many countries

            Soviet withdrawal and spread of terrorism throughout the Middle East and Asia


*Kaplan readings: The South China Sea

*Europe (land conflict) vs. Asia (air, sea, and space conflict)

*China as a naval power

*war considered to be more difficult in East Asia than it was in Europe

*Traffic through the S. China Sea

*oil and gas in the South China Sea

*China sees South China Sea as rightfully its territory

*S. East Asian nations claim parts of it

*US defense of small allies

*Balance of power in East Asia = US presence

*Nine dashed line

*US-Vietnam partnership

*Taiwan’s status: China or not

*Taiwan’s democratization and 1996 crisis

China and Taiwan: identity


            12 mile limit

200 mile exclusive economic zone

Dispute resolution mechanism

Sovereignty issues exception

*Paracel Islands

*Spratly Islands

*US Pivot (rebalancing)

Realist view

Idealist view

Constructivist view