POLI/INTL 105: Review Sheet Exam 2: Fall 2011

Bill Newmann

The exam format will be the same as the previous exam: 60 multiple-choice questions

Terms that are preceded by an asterisk (*) are dealt with in the readings!

Remember for the readings in The Rivals that Iím looking for the big picture issues, not all the details.Youíll see terms from the book below.

 

List of Terms:

Level of analysis concept

 

War and Peace:

Clausewitz major premise about war and politics

 

Causes of War and Peace:

1. Human Nature: Individual level of analysis

War as human nature

learning peace?

 

*2. Balance of Power: Realism: system level

*Number of poles of power

War caused by imbalance of power

*WW I caused by an imbalance of power

Peace achieved through stable balance of power

Concert of Europe

 

3. Power Transition/Long Cycle Theory: Realism: system level

peace imposed by a dominant power

war caused by challenges to that dominant power

The 100 year cycle of war and peace

Implications (US decline?)

US hegemonic power

*China as the rising challenger?

 

*Terms from the Rivals (Note that I place the terms here because I want you to think about this in the context of Balance of Power and Power Transition Theories)

*Rise of China and India

*Economic growth in all three nations

*ASEAN

*Chinaís sense of being encircled by US allies

*Indiaís sense of being encircled by China

*Mistrust of Japan because of WW II

*Unit 731

*Economic growth first, environmental concerns second

*Border Disputes

*Possible flashpoints

††††††††††† *Taiwan

††††††††††† *Arunachal Pradesh

††††††††††† *Kashmir

††††††††††† *East China Sea

 

4. Nuclear Revolution (individual level as people fear nuclear war or state level as state power prevents war)

Peace caused by the fear of nuclear weapons

War caused by irrational, outlaw states

Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea

 

5. Interdependence: Idealism: (system or state level)

Global Economic Marketplace as cause of peace

Free Trade

Interdependence

war caused by outsiders, non-free traders, closed economies

 

6. Democratization: Idealism: (state level)

Democracies donít fight each other

Reasons why?

Democracies fight non-democracies

Democratizing states as more likely to fight wars

Nationalism and the transition to democracy

Germany, Japan, Serbia (Yugoslavia in the 1990s)

 

 International Organizations

 

*IGOs

*supranational global organization

*trends in UN membership and why was there an increase since 1945

*nonstate actor

League of Nations

failure of League and coming of WW II

 

United Nations

*UN Charter

††††††††††† Article 2

*UN General Assembly

††††††††††† *voting procedures

*UN Security Council

††††††††††† *voting procedures

††††††††††† *Permanent 5 and veto

*ECOSOC

*UN Secretary General

*Secretariat

††††††††††† Boutros Boutros-Ghali

††††††††††† Kofi Annan

Ban Ki-Moon

††††††††††† Secretariat

 

UN Functions concerning security (issues of conflict and cooperation):

1. *Collective Security

*Chapter 7 of the UN Charter

Collective Security during the Cold War: No consensus at the UNSC

Collective security after the Cold War: the Persian Gulf War

2. Peacekeeping

*Chapter 6

Border/Decolonization problems

Consent rule

3. *Peacekeeping after the cold war

*Peacebuilding:

Cambodia: UNTAC

4. *Peace Making/Enforcement:††††††††

††††††††††† *Responsibility to Protect (R2P)

Somalia and Rwanda; Bosnia and Kosovo

Lessons of Peace Enforcement (see PPT slide)

*Regional Organization

*European Union

 

NGOs

Definition

††††††††††† Transnational advocacy networks

The impact of globalization on NGOs

Impact of communications revolution

Corporate vs. Network structures

Good News

††††††††††† Lobbying and action-oriented NGOs

††††††††††† Human Rights Watch

††††††††††† International Campaign to Ban Land Mines

 

The Bad News: Terrorism

*Al-Qaeda: An NGO that uses violence to make its point

*How globalization makes terrorism possible

September 11, 2001

*Definitions of terrorism: Purposes: to cause pain that will lead to a change in governmental policy

  1. political agenda
  2. Violence the method of achieving political goals
  3. Deliberate targeting of civilians
  4. Publicity: use of media coverage

Who attacked on 9/11?

*Osama bin Laden

*Al-Qaeda (AQ) terrorist organization

Why is Al-Qaeda important?

global power

Non-state actor with strategic goals

AQís ideology

*Transnationalists vs. nationalists

Chart: Origins of Recent Terrorism

††††††††††† *Iranian Revolution

††††††††††† Saudi sponsored schools††††††††

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

††††††††††† The fight against the Soviets: mujahadin, foreign fighters, aid from many countries

††††††††††† Soviet withdrawal and spread of terrorism throughout the Middle East and Asia

Politics not religion

Why the Middle East?