POLI/INTL 363: Summer 2017

Review Sheet: Exam I

Bill Newmann



This looks big, but don't worry.  If you have come to class and done all the reading, nothing here should be new to you.

            Also, though there are a lot of terms, obviously, not each one of them is the subject of an essay. These terms, in order, are an outline of everything we've done so far. A group of them might be the subject of an essay, or maybe a comparison between one president's foreign policy and another. Usually, you can't explain a single term without referring to the terms next to it. So, really, if you can say one or two things about each term and how it relates to the terms around it and fits into the larger scheme of US foreign policy you're doing fine. Some terms, however, are filled with enough significance to be short answers/identifications on the test (four or five sentences), but you'll be able to figure out which ones.


Terms with (*) in front of them may not have been included in the lectures, but were discussed, at length, in the readings.


Please, any questions, come to office hours or send me an email.


You will have the entire class period to take the exam.  It will consist of:

·         short answer/identifications (choose 2 of 10: 15 points each for 30 points). These are the instructions for the short answers that you’ll see on the exam: Identify and comment on the significance of the following terms: You can probably do this in four or five sentences.  It's fine to write more, but be careful of the time -- you don't want to use up too much time that could be used for the essays.  Each one of these could have a book written about them, so you've got to tell me what's really important about each one.  If you have trouble on these, go on to the essays and come back.

·         essay (choose 1 of 2: 70 points). 




List of terms:

presidential dominance in foreign Policy

congressional powers vs. presidential powers


Public Opinion


Executive Branch:

organization of departments in a hierarchy

Department of State

*National Security Act of 1947

Department of Defense

            Secretary of Defense

            civilian control of the military

            Joint Chiefs of Staff

Central Intelligence Agency

Director of National Intelligence

*National Security Council

*Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (National Security Adviser)

*National Security Council Staff and its changing role

            *reasons why presidents have used NSC staff

*difference between NSC and NSC staff (Very important!!!! If you don’t know this, you’ll be sad on exam day)

*Truman’s use of NSC

Analytical Model (Rational Policy Model)

            cost-benefit analysis

Organizational Process Model

            organizational interests

            organizational competition      

            standard operating procedures (SOP)

Bureaucratic Politics Model

            individual actors


Presidential Management Model

            presidential power to structure the process

            Tools the President uses to manage the process


The Concept of National Interest:

            what are the threats to the US?

            what role should the US take in the world?



            Realism -- power

            Idealism (Liberal Internationalism) -- values, law, interdependence


Policies 1789-1945

Pre-WW II Policies

US as a Regional Power

1.      Manifest Destiny

2.      Free Market economics

3.      Spreading Democracy

4.      Nervousness about Commitments


Explaining the Cold War

Realist explanation

Idealist explanation

            The theory of Communism

            The practice of Communism in the Soviet Union and China

                        Lenin and Stalin

                        *Mao Zedong

Economic Explanation


Early Cold War

US post-war acceptance of internationalism

Republicans (stay a regional power) vs. Democrats (become a global power)

Bipartisan consensus by 1950-52

*Eisenhower vs. “isolationist” Republicans

*Eisenhower’s formal NSC style

*inclusion of all relevant advisors

*Planning Board


*Sestanovich’s concept of maximalist and retrenchment cycle

*Maximalist presidents

*retrenchment presidents

1. Anti-Soviet, Anti-Communist policy

*Truman’s definition of the threat and US role in the world


*Greece and Turkey

*Truman Doctrine


*George Kennan and Mr. X article

The nature of Stalin’s Soviet Union

Soviet economics – command economy

Political freedoms in Soviet Bloc?

*Soviet Bloc achievements 1945-1950

*Division of Europe – Iron Curtain

*NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

*Divided nations

*Spheres of Influence

*NSC 68

Cold War as Balance of Power

Premise: Someone will order the international system: US doesn’t want the USSR to do it


2. Free Markets

US hope to spread free market capitalism

US belief that only free markets can guarantee political freedoms

*Premise underneath Marshall Plan – strong economies create strong middle classes who are less likely to believe in Communism

International economic system created by the US

            IMF, World Bank, GATT

US economic system created in 1940s – its relationship to globalization today

Criticism: US only wanted to free markets so its companies had access to cheap land and cheap labor

US response to governments that threatened US economic interests?

Success in N. America, W. Europe, N. E. Asia and some in SE Asia

Less success/controversy in developing world


3. Democracy Building

            A. Success in W. Europe and N.E. Asia

            B. Overthrowing democratically elected governments who lean too far to the left economically

                        *Iran 1953 (Eisenhower)

                        *Guatemala 1954 (Eisenhower)

                        *Attempt in Cuba 1961 (Eisenhower Plan; JFK policy)

*Chile 1973 (Nixon)

            C. US support for fascist dictators if they were anti-communist and capitalist

                        But US did push some toward democracy if a chance arrived

                                    1970s-1990s – S. Korea and Taiwan

                                    1986 -- Philippines and Haiti

            D. US semi-alliances with anti-Soviet Communists

                        Yugoslavia and China (after 1969)


4. Multilateralism

Build global order

Use international law, alliances and institutions



IMF, World Bank, GATT



5. Regional Conflict

Outside spheres of influence

*US-Soviet competition

US and Soviet involvement in civil wars, military coup, revolution

Angola 1970s– civil war becomes part of cold war

*China and Taiwan

Rules of regional conflict


6. Deterrence and Forward Presence

Manhattan Project

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

A-Bomb vs. H-Bomb


            Preventing action

            Using threats


*Forward Presence


Intervention, Engagement, Confrontation

What never changed?

The Dilemma?



Total War vs. Limited War

*Korean War

*Limited war in Korea

*Kim Il Sung

*Korean War

*UN resolution to intervene in Korea

*Collective Security

*MacArthur vs. Truman in Korea

*Escalation and stalemate in Korea


*Kennedy’s NSC

*Kennedy’s NSC Staff as a “mini-State Dept.”

*Bay of Pigs

*Cuban Missile Crisis



Viet Nam

The context

*Vietnam as a cold war struggle

*Strategic Logic

*Domino Theory

*Political price of losing a nation to Communism

*LBJ Tuesday Lunch Group and Vietnam

*LBJ and Groupthink on Vietnam (Rothkopf)


Overall dilemma

            Can’t lose; can’t win

            *Coercive diplomacy strategy

*Result: US war effort under LBJ


*Rolling Thunder bombing

Nixon’s War

Withdrawal, but sustained bombing


1.      Limitations of US power

2.      Wisdom of intervention questioned

3.      Nation-Building

4.      Nationalism



Post-Vietnam Changes

New Congressional power

            War Powers Act

            Clark Amendment

End of the foreign policy consensus

Vietnam Syndrome


The Post-Vietnam Dilemma


Nixon-Kissinger and Detente

*Nixon-Kissinger Foreign Policy Process

*Nixon in charge

*Nixon distrust of State Dept.

*Kissinger running system on behalf of Nixon

*Kissinger's and Nixon's shared beliefs (realism)

Why détente?

1.      *Strategic Parity

            Soviet buildup

2.      *Sino-Soviet Split

            *Mao Zedong

3.      Vietnam Syndrome

*Detente as Containment

*Detente to change Soviet behavior


Detente as Balance of Power



Détente Policies:

1.      SALT

Interim Agreement

ABMs and their effect on deterrence

ABM Treaty

2.      *Triangular Diplomacy (This section relies on readings from Tucker, in particular)

*Chiang Kai-shek and US recognition of Taiwan as the real China

*Nixon’s view of opening relations with China, pre-presidency


*Kissinger's secret trip to China, July 1971

*Zhou Enlai

*Taiwan loses seat at UN

*US motivations

*The problem of Taiwan

*Shanghai Communique


Ford- Carter and the Challenges for Detente   

*Carter wants a team approach to decisions (collegial)

*Carter's *Human Rights Policy

Exceptions to Human Rights policy:


South Korea


Carter recognizes China

*Iranian revolution and US hostage crisis

            *Iran as a US ally

*The Shah

            *Ayatollah Khomeini

            *Perception of US weakness

*Soviet invasion of Afghanistan


            *US support for Mujahedin

Arc of Crisis

            *Brzezinski’s view of Iran and Afghanistan: Soviet threat

*October War and oil embargo 1973

Carter’s new policies:

            SALT II

            Defense Buildup

            *Carter Doctrine

                        *RDJTF and Central Command (Bacevich)

            *Rescue Mission




The Post-Détente Dilemma


Ronald Reagan 

*Reagan's view of the world as he entered office

*Reagan anti-communist idealism vs. Nixon anti-Soviet realism

*Reagan’s view of detente

Reagan's view of the problems facing the US:

1. Third Wave of Marxism and response

Reagan Doctrine

*Offensive strategy

*Rollback of Soviet gains

*US support for Mujaheedin

            *rivalry in Mujahedin (Bacevich)

*Pakistan’s role

2. Vietnam Syndrome and response


*Operation Eldorado Canyon


*Lebanon: Beirut intervention


*Israeli invasion of Lebanon

                        *October 23, 1983 bombing

3. Decade of Neglect and response




Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN)

US Public Opinion

Reagan strategy in Central America


            *William Casey

*Boland Amendment Number 2

*Reagan response

            *private funds

            *foreign countries

*Hostages in Lebanon

*Arms sales to Iran

*linkage of Contras and arms sales

*Oliver North


*Indictments and convictions


End of the Cold War:

Soviet Succession

Yuri Andropov

Konstantin Chernenko

Mikhail Gorbachev

New Thinking

            *Economic restructuring (perestroika)

            *Political freedoms (glasnost)

            Ending the cold war

                        Ending the Arms race

                        End to regional conflict

Reagan and Bush responses

Freeing of Eastern Europe

USSR collapses

            15 republics

August 1991 Coup