POLI/INTL 105 Summer 2014

Review Sheet: EXAM 1:

††††††††††† The following list of terms is really just an outline of the lectures I've given. It will also include some terms selected from the readings; these are terms that I think are particularly important aspects of the reading (Which is a polite way of saying, if you are not doing the reading, you better start doing the reading). The readings support things we've talked about in class, explain them, and flesh out some concepts. Terms that are dealt with primarily in the readings will be designated with an (*).

††††††††††† This looks big, BUT remember most of these are things that can be defined in one sentence; they are bits and pieces of larger ideas and concepts. And if you've been in class and have done the readings there should be nothing new here.

The test consists of 60 multiple-choice questions. It is designed to take you about 50-60 minutes, though usually when I give tests of similar length and content most people don't need all the time I allow. You will have the entire class period for the exam.

If you have any questions, feel free to email me for an appointment, or come to office hours, and donít forget the SI sessions.

 

List of terms:

The nature of the International System:

A definition of the international system

*the world as anarchy

the world as institutionalizing

Domestic Politics (DP) vs. International Politics (IP):

DP as hierarchy

 

DP compared with IP:

1. Central Authority:

DP: Centralization of power

IP: no central authority:

every nation for itself

*sovereignty

*self-reliance or self-help

On the other hand:

*laws, treaties, institutions (UN, WTO)

Do powerful states create an informal central authority?

 

2. Conflict Resolution and Force:

DP:††††† regulated conflict, political and legal processes

Force is illegitimate except by authorized officials

IP:†††††††

conflict unregulated, resort to self-reliance, the use of force. If you win the war your use of force was legitimate.

On the other hand: powerful make rules for resolving conflict, rules to create justice, trend toward negotiation not violence

 

For IP, two views

1.      *anarchy: might makes right

2.      institutionalization: world is evolving toward nation-state cooperation through institutions

 

Basic Points:

††††††††††† Anarchy vs. institutionalization

††††††††††† The international system is evolving

*The security dilemma

 

Ideas:

*Realism

 

Propositions about realism

*the state is the only actor that matters

1.      *the goal -- power

2.      *morality, ideas, domestic politics?

3.      *cause of the quest for power?

A.                       human nature

B.                       *anarchy

4.      *foreign policy?

5.      *and peace achieved through?

A.     *Balance of power

B.     *Polarity

C.     *alliances

6.      *Unipolarity will not last

*Definition of power

*Traditional views: hard Power

*Power as capabilities

*Soft power 

 

*Idealism or Liberalism

1.      *more than competition exists in the international system

2.      common interests?

3.      morality, ethics, values

4.      *commerce Ė free trade

5.      *global marketplace

6.      *law

7.      *institutions

*interdependence

*reciprocity

treaties

Enforcement

Constructivism

1.      *nation-states are not all alike

2.      *political culture influences foreign policy

3.      *form of government influences foreign policy

4.      *history, political context matter

5.      *domestic politics matters

*states have an identity that shapes the way they interact with other states

Examples: Russia, China, US

 

*Marxism

*Feminism

 

Evolution of the International System:

1. Age of Empires

Eventual European (western) domination of the world

*imperialism

example of Africa during and after colonial era

importance of industrial revolution in European dominance

popular sovereignty vs. monarchies

 

2. Creation of Nation-State system

Holy Roman Empire

Rise of nationalism and Protestantism Reformation in Europe

Thirty Years War

Treaty of Westphalia or Peace of Westphalia (1648)

*sovereign states

power in the hands of the state (individual monarchs), not religion or empire

* self-determination

Napoleon's challenge to the system and defeat

 

3. *Concert of Europe

*Congress of Vienna

*Multipolar system

*polarity

*alliances

Great Powers (5)

colonialism

*Balance of Power

Rules of Balance of Power

*England's role

*Prussian/German challenge to Balance of Power

Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance

*WWI

 

4. Interwar period and WWII

*Changes in power balance/fate of the old great powers -- England, Germany, France, A-H, Russia

*Treaty of Versailles

*League of Nations

U. S. rise to power

*1920s' economic boom and the Depression

*Japanese/Italian/German aggression

*Munich agreement of 1938 and appeasement

*Axis vs. Allies: WWII

 

5. Cold War

Superpowers

1. *Bipolar Balance of Power

††††††††††† *US containment of the USSR

*dividing the world/collecting allies

*NATO

*Warsaw Pact

2. Regional Conflict

*Decolonization

*spheres of influence

divided nations

proxy wars

††††††††††† *Korean war, Vietnam war

*In what parts of the world?

Rules (2)

nations asked to choose sides; competition for allies

3.      *Nuclear Weapons

A.     *deterrence

B.     Mutual Assured Destruction

4.      *Ideology

A.     *Liberal-democracy vs. communism

 

Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War

*perestroika and glasnost

*The collapse of the USSR and its future

Collapse of Cold war international system††††††

 

6. After the Cold War

A.     unipolarity

B.     New Bipolarity -- US vs. China

C.     Multipolarity -- US, Russia, Japan, E. U., China, India? 

D.     Joint Leadership

a.       G-20

E.      Globalization: Interdependence

F.      Rapid Change and Instability

G.     Decline of Nation-State Power

H.     Challenging States

I.        Wild Cards

 

The Future and Global Trends 2030

 

*Megatrends

 

1.      *Individual Empowerment

 

a.       *Information-technology

 

2.      *Diffusion of Power

 

a.       *Away from the West, toward the East

 

3.      *Demographic patterns

a.       *Aging, migration, urbanization

 

4.      *Scarcity of Natural resources

 

*Game Changers

 

1.      *Crisis-Prone Global Economy

 

2.      *Governance Gap

 

3.      *Potential for Increased Conflict

 

a.       *Middle East, S. Asia

 

b.      *Spread of lethal technology

 

4.      *Wider Scope of Regional Instability

 

5.      *Access to New Technologies

 

6.      *Role of the US

 

a.       Relative decline

 

*Alternate Worlds

 

1.      *Stalled Engines

 

2.      *Fusion

 

3.      *GINI Out of the Bottle

 

4.      *Non-State World