Exam 1 Review Sheet
The exam will consist of two sections:
· Short answers: Choose 2 of 7. I will choose 7 terms from this review sheet and you will choose 2 of those to answer. I’m looking for 5-6 sentences that define the term and tell me why it is important in the context of Chinese politics.
· Essay: I will write two essay questions. You will choose one to answer. The essay questions will be straightforward, but they are designed to make you think about Chinese politics and to allow you to use your knowledge of Chinese politics to answer the question.
· You will have one hour one hour and 15 minutes for the exam.
This review looks big, but don't worry. If you have come to class and done all the reading, nothing here should be new to you. Also, though there are a lot of terms, obviously, not each one of them is the subject of an essay. These terms, in order, form an outline of everything we've done so far. A group of them might be the subject of an essay. Usually, you can't explain a single term without referring to the terms next to it. So, really, if you can say one or two things about each term and how it relates to the terms around it and fits into the larger scheme of Chinese politics you're doing fine. Some terms, however, are filled with enough significance to be short answers/identifications on the test (four or five sentences), but you'll be able to figure out which ones.
Terms with (*) in front of them may not have been included in the lectures, but were discussed, at length, in the readings.
If you have questions, email or come to office hours, or make an appointment.
Political Culture and Political Development
Dynastic record -- Imperial China
4,000 years of a unified
Centralized, authoritarian rule
Order-chaos pattern (centralization-decentralization-recentralization)
Mongol and Manchu invasion – foreign invaders ruled as Chinese dynasties
Current CCP leaders understanding of the political legacy of the dynastic periods
Fear of decentralization that might lead to chaos
and a return to power for
Isolation from barbarians
Confucian political thought
Confucius (Kong Fu Zi)
Unity of political and social order
Harmony and balance
Factional rivalries among ruling elites
Legalism (Han Fei)
Not harmony/balance, but order
Strict imperial control
Confucian rhetoric; legalism implementation
Spread of ideology
Creation of Modern Nation-State
Why did the fall of the Qing dynasty was the fall of Imperial China
European and Japanese encroachment
Opium War (
"100 years of Humiliation"
Kuomintang - KMT (Guomindang - GMD)
Three Principles of the People
Qing falls; Republican era begins
Warlords and civil war
KMT vs. CCP
Chinese Civil War
Order-chaos fulfilled (chaos 1911-1949)?
But new ideology created to rule next period of order
Confucian vs. Communism or blend of Confucianism and Communism
Mao’s legitimacy based on?
The importance of nationalism
Party is more powerful than government; party role for individuals is what gives them power
Real power/decision making is at the very top and based on factional rivalries
No opposition to CCP allowed
Formal structure (hierarchical pyramid of committees)
National People's Congress
NPC Standing Committee
Commissions and ministries
Standing Committee of State Council
Government role is implementation
National Party Congress
*Standing Committee of Politburo
Party role counts, so factional debates are at level of party leadership
1949-1976: Mao vs. everyone else
fate of number 2 in party when they challenged or seemed to challenge Mao
consensus decision making:
conservatives vs. reformers over the pace of reform
Factional allies, loyalists, and power bases
Public Policy -- Mao's
A series of campaigns
Dictatorship of the CCP – no rivals allowed
Failure of Mao’s efforts
The elements of a campaign
100 Flowers movement
*Great Leap Forward
Mao faces challengers over GLF
Fate of #2 in the Party
Death of Zhou Enlai
Death of Mao
Pragmatists under Deng Xiaoping
Gang of Four
Gang of Four arrested
Deng Xiaoping consolidates power
Public Policy -- Deng's
*Economics -- massive reform
*End of isolation
No political challenges to CCP
Consensus decisions at the top
economic reforms = economic freedoms: what is the impact of that on politics?
Priority of economic modernization
*End of collectivization of agriculture
*agricultural experiments that pre-date 1978
*state owned enterprises still dominate (SOEs)
*open door trade policy
*Special Economic Zones
*Foreign Direct Investment
*Attracting Foreign Investment
Greater Chinese Economy
*Pace of reforms: the new factional battle
Speed up vs. Slow down
*Bird cage analogy
The results of economic reform
*Greatest generation of wealth in world history
*Modernization in special zones
New ideology -- "To Get Rich Is Glorious"
*deterioration of infrastructure in some places and new everything other places
*the boom and wealth in cities vs. rural areas
*internet and the Great Firewall of China
*individuality in the reform-era China
Ideological justification for reforms
Deng Xiaoping Theory
Impact of cultural revolution
*Failure of Mao’s economy
Death of Mao
*how the CPC bebefits from economic reforms
Three cases: 1978/79, 1986, 1989
Demands for political reform followed economic reform
CCP seemed to encourage limited debate on limited issues, but it clearly saw a limit to that debate and crushed the debate/dissent/protests
Each incident led to a factional battle about how to respond (Important: make sure you understand the factional battle at each of these junctures)
Wei Jingsheng and the 5th Modernization
Spring 1992 Southern Tour of Deng Xiaoping
Message -- economic growth, but no political change
creation of politically agnostic capitalists?
*The fate of dissidents (Ai Weiwei or Liu Xiaobo)
*balancing attempts at freedom of the press
Deng Xiaoping Theory as the current ideology
*Socialist market economy
economic modernization as priority
the extent of freedom of speech/press
the limits – organization
Falun Gong example
Where does the Communist party gain legitimacy?
Xi Jinping’s rule
as the core leader
Crackdown on dissent and alternate ideas
Economic growth forever?
impact of slow growth/recession?
The relationship between economic growth or lack of growth and political change
*Labor unrest/mass incidents
*migrant worker problems
*Emphasis on stability
Can you create politically agnostic capitalists?
Economic development and Political Change: The model
Add economic/political crisis
*Chinese model of authoritarian capitalism
*Lessons of Bo Xilai
*no cult of personality
*Liu Xiaobo and Charter 08
Scenarios for the Future?
Chen and Wu (I won’t test you on the details of each story. The important ideas are those that are part of each story)
*Protests against local government
*the issues: taxes, home demolitions, local corruption, police misconduct, local officials ignoring the law
*When peasants disagree with the local officials: the results?
*Household Contract responsibility System
*Hoping the central government will save the people from local government