POLI/INTL 355 Spring 2017

Exam 1 Review Sheet


The exam will consist of two sections:

·         Short answers: Choose 2 of 7.  I will choose 7 terms from this review sheet and you will choose 2 of those to answer.  I’m looking for 5-6 sentences that define the term and tell me why it is important in the context of Chinese politics.

·         Essay: I will write two essay questions.  You will choose one to answer.  The essay questions will be straightforward, but they are designed to make you think about Chinese politics and to allow you to use your knowledge of Chinese politics to answer the question.

·         You will have one hour one hour and 15 minutes for the exam.


This review looks big, but don't worry.  If you have come to class and done all the reading, nothing here should be new to you.  Also, though there are a lot of terms, obviously, not each one of them is the subject of an essay. These terms, in order, form an outline of everything we've done so far. A group of them might be the subject of an essay. Usually, you can't explain a single term without referring to the terms next to it. So, really, if you can say one or two things about each term and how it relates to the terms around it and fits into the larger scheme of Chinese politics you're doing fine. Some terms, however, are filled with enough significance to be short answers/identifications on the test (four or five sentences), but you'll be able to figure out which ones.


Terms with (*) in front of them may not have been included in the lectures, but were discussed, at length, in the readings.


If you have questions, email or come to office hours, or make an appointment. 





Political Culture and Political Development

Dynastic record -- Imperial China

4,000 years of a unified China; 5,000 years of Chinese political culture

Centralized, authoritarian rule

Order-chaos pattern (centralization-decentralization-recentralization)

Mongol and Manchu invasion – foreign invaders ruled as Chinese dynasties

Current CCP leaders understanding of the political legacy of the dynastic periods

                Fear of decentralization that might lead to chaos

                Nationalism and a return to power for China

China as the center of the world

                Isolation from barbarians


Confucian political thought

Confucius (Kong Fu Zi)

Unity of political and social order


                Harmony and balance

Emperor's role

                Heaven's Mandate

                Factional rivalries among ruling elites

Family role

                Women's role


Legalism (Han Fei)

Not harmony/balance, but order

Law enforcement

Strict imperial control

Confucian rhetoric; legalism implementation





                Spread of ideology



Creation of Modern Nation-State

Internal weaknesses

Qing Dynasty

Why did the fall of the Qing dynasty was the fall of Imperial China

External forces

European and Japanese encroachment

Opium War (China vs. Britain)

                "100 years of Humiliation"

Nationalist Movement

                Sun Yat-Sen

                Kuomintang - KMT (Guomindang - GMD)


                Three Principles of the People

Communist movement

Qing falls; Republican era begins

Warlords and civil war

Chiang Kai-shek


KMT victory

Sino-Japanese War

Chinese Civil War


Communist Era

                Order-chaos fulfilled (chaos 1911-1949)?             

                But new ideology created to rule next period of order

Mao Dynasty?

Confucian vs. Communism or blend of Confucianism and Communism

Mao’s legitimacy based on? 

                The importance of nationalism


Communism in China




                Peasant revolution

                Mass Line

                Campaigns/continuous revolution


Government Structure

Party is more powerful than government; party role for individuals is what gives them power

Real power/decision making is at the very top and based on factional rivalries

No opposition to CCP allowed


Formal structure (hierarchical pyramid of committees)

Work unit


Government structure

National People's Congress

NPC Standing Committee

State Council


                Commissions and ministries

Standing Committee of State Council

Judicial branch

Government role is implementation


Party structure

National Party Congress

Central Committee



                Party Secretariat

                *General Secretary

*Standing Committee of Politburo


Factional politics

Party role counts, so factional debates are at level of party leadership

1949-1976: Mao vs. everyone else

fate of number 2 in party when they challenged or seemed to challenge Mao

Since 1979:

consensus decision making:

conservatives vs. reformers over the pace of reform

Factional allies, loyalists, and power bases


Public Policy -- Mao's China

Remaking China into a Communist state, a revolutionary state

A series of campaigns



Command Economy

Dictatorship of the CCP – no rivals allowed

Failure of Mao’s efforts


                The elements of a campaign

100 Flowers movement

*Great Leap Forward



                Mao faces challengers over GLF



Cultural Revolution


                Four Olds

                Red Guards


Fate of #2 in the Party

Death of Zhou Enlai

Death of Mao


Three Factions

                Pragmatists under Deng Xiaoping

                Hua Guofeng

                Gang of Four

Gang of Four arrested

Deng Xiaoping consolidates power


Public Policy -- Deng's China

*Economics -- massive reform

*End of isolation

No political challenges to CCP

Consensus decisions at the top

economic reforms = economic freedoms: what is the impact of that on politics?



December 1978

Priority of economic modernization

                Four Modernizations

*Capitalist reforms

                *End of collectivization of agriculture

                *agricultural experiments that pre-date 1978


                *Relaxed planning

                *state owned enterprises still dominate (SOEs)

*open door trade policy

*Special Economic Zones

*Foreign Direct Investment

*Attracting Foreign Investment

*Export Power

                Greater Chinese Economy

*Pace of reforms: the new factional battle

                Speed up vs. Slow down

*Bird cage analogy


The results of economic reform

*Economic Boom

*Greatest generation of wealth in world history

*Modernization in special zones

New ideology -- "To Get Rich Is Glorious"


*deterioration of infrastructure in some places and new everything other places

*Social mobility

*Generational differences


*the boom and wealth in cities vs. rural areas

*internet and the Great Firewall of China

*individuality in the reform-era China


Ideological justification for reforms

Deng Xiaoping Theory

CPC primacy


Why reform?

                Impact of cultural revolution

                *Failure of Mao’s economy

                Lessons of Japan and Four Tigers

Death of Mao

 *how the CPC bebefits from economic reforms



Three cases: 1978/79, 1986, 1989

Demands for political reform followed economic reform

CCP seemed to encourage limited debate on limited issues, but it clearly saw a limit to that debate and crushed the debate/dissent/protests

Each incident led to a factional battle about how to respond (Important: make sure you understand the factional battle at each of these junctures)



Democracy Wall

                Wei Jingsheng and the 5th Modernization

1986 demonstrations

                Hu Yaobang

*Tiananmen Square

                *Zhao Ziyang

                Li Peng

                Martial law

                June 4

Meaning of Tiananmen Square

Spring 1992 Southern Tour of Deng Xiaoping

Message -- economic growth, but no political change

                creation of politically agnostic capitalists?

*The fate of dissidents (Ai Weiwei or Liu Xiaobo)

*balancing attempts at freedom of the press



China's Future:


The Party

Deng Xiaoping Theory as the current ideology

                *Socialist market economy

economic modernization as priority


                CPC leadership

                the extent of freedom of speech/press

                the limits – organization

                Falun Gong example

                Where does the Communist party gain legitimacy?

Intra-party democracy

Xi Jinping’s rule

as the core leader


Patriotic loyalty

Crackdown on dissent and alternate ideas

Factional Battles



Economic growth forever?

impact of slow growth/recession?

The relationship between economic growth or lack of growth and political change

Economic problems


*Labor unrest/mass incidents


*migrant worker problems


Political Development

*Emphasis on stability

Village Elections


Can you create politically agnostic capitalists?

The Singapore model

                “guided democracy”

Economic development and Political Change: The model

                Taiwan example

                Add economic/political crisis

*Chinese model of authoritarian capitalism


*Lessons of Bo Xilai

*no cult of personality


*Liu Xiaobo and Charter 08


Scenarios for the Future?


Chen and Wu (I won’t test you on the details of each story.  The important ideas are those that are part of each story)

*Triple Agri”

*Protests against local government

                *the issues: taxes, home demolitions, local corruption, police misconduct, local officials ignoring the law

*When peasants disagree with the local officials: the results?

*Household Contract responsibility System

*Hoping the central government will save the people from local government