Fall 2016: POLI 308: Bill Newmann

Review Sheet 1

This looks big, but don't worry.  If you have come to class and done all the reading, nothing here should be new to you.

            Also, though there are a lot of terms, obviously, not each one of them is the subject of an essay. These terms, in order, are an outline of everything we've done so far. A group of them might be the subject of an essay. Usually, you can't explain a single term without referring to the terms next to it. So, really, if you can say one or two things about each term and how it relates to the terms around it and fits into the larger issues and concepts related to terrorism, you're doing fine. Some terms, however, are filled with enough significance to be short answers/identifications on the test (four or five sentences), but you'll be able to figure out which ones.


Terms with (*) in front of them may not have been included in the lectures, but were discussed, at length, in the readings.


Please, any questions, come to office hours or send me an email.


The exam will be multiple choice (ugh).  Again, I’m sorry about that. Classes at the 300-level should be short answer and essay, but I wouldn’t be able to grade anything because of my surgery. So it’s multiple choice.  The final will be shot answer and essay.  Most importantly for this exam, the multiple choice questions will be ones that I write. They are not designed to confuse you. They are designed to see what you know and to make you think.  There will be 75 questions on the exam.  You will have the full class period for the exam (one hour and fifteen minutes).


List of Terms: (Those terms preceded by an (*) are found primarily in the readings)


Introduction to the Presidency

Methods of studying the presidency:

  1. Historical Approach
  2. Institutional Approach
  3. Character Approach


*Greenstein’s keys to leadership

·         *public communication

·         *organizational capacity

·         *political skill

·         *policy vision

·         *cognitive style

·         *emotional intelligence


Two Key Issues

  1. Institutional/Political Environment: major players in the struggle for political power:

States, Congress, Presidency, Courts, Parties, People, Bureaucracy, Media

  1. Presidential power:

Cycles of power -- strong and weak presidents


Constitution and Early Presidencies

Articles of Confederation and Executive Power?

Framers nervousness about Executive Power

Problems of Legislative dominance and lack of unifying structures for colonies

1787 Continental Congress

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Views of Executive Power:

*expansive presidential power: anything that is not specifically someone else’s power is the presidents

Constitution with Executive ratified; Bill of Rights in the deal

Comparison of powers of Congress in Article I vs. Article II




Cycles of Political Time

·         *Political and economic orders or regimes

·         The political context of those regimes/orders

·         A cycle of regimes that rise and fall

·         Regimes are dominated by the president


Electoral College

*12th amendment and 1800 election

Electoral vote vs. popular vote problems

Separation of Powers or Shared Powers?


Definition of the Modern Presidency


Presidential domination


Models of Presidential Government and Pre-Modern Presidents

Hamiltonian Model

*George Washington: figure head or leader behind the scenes (his view of the presidential role)

*working through intermediaries/Hamilton’s role

*Jefferson vs. Hamilton


Madisonian Model


*undermined by rival Hamilton

*absences from New York capital

*lack of political and communication skill


Jeffersonian Model

*Thomas Jefferson in office

*governing based on philosophy/ideas

*courting members of Congress

*Congress as partner


*Madison as a weak president

*Monroe as a Jeffersonian president (dislike of parties)

*JQ Adams and the elections of 1824 and 1828

*Adams and political skill/public communication


Jacksonian Model      

Jackson’s rhetoric

            elites vs. the people

*The president and the people in Jackson’s view


Jackson's Theory of the Presidency -- Political competition for power

*Nullification Crisis

*Jackson and the Bank


Abraham Lincoln:

Presidential Dominance under Lincoln

Lincoln, Slavery, and maintaining the Union

Lincoln as a master politician

Lincoln and the politics of reconstruction


Post-Lincoln -- Pre-Teddy Roosevelt

Era of Congressional Dominance


Theodore Roosevelt:

The role of the President

Stewardship Theory

Bully Pulpit



The Modern Presidency:

1789-1933: First Republic of US?

1933-Present: Second Republic of US?

FDR and the New Deal: A new philosophy of Government


*The Depression

*Hoover's ideas about Depression and his solutions

*FDR's ideas on the Depression

*FDR rhetoric

*Election of 1932

*Hoover vs. FDR on trade

*Critics of FDR

*Public support for dictatorial presidential powers during depression

*Louis Howe

*FDR experience under Wilson

*Pragmatic philosophy for government

*Brains trust (not the specific people, but the diversity of the ideas)

*The method of FDR decision making – competitive)

*Public support for activity from presidency


Theories of the Governmental Role in the Economy:

1. Classical Liberalism

2. Modern Liberalism

FDR's New Deal:

1. Government Role in the Economy:

·         *patronage

1.      *WPA

·         *regulatory policy

1.      *NIRA

2.      *Schecter case

·         *redistributive policy

1.      *Social security


2. President's Role:


3. Enlargement of Federal Government

            White House Office

            *Executive Office of the President

            "Presidential Branch"

4. Precedents and Expectations

            *100 Days

            *Federal Government as Provider of Services

5. Electoral realignment

The New Deal Coalition (This is very important; we discussed it twice)


*FDR's leadership and bringing hope to the US people

*FDR's Character and Life

*Criticism of New Deal

            *critics accusing New Deal of being socialism


Harry Truman and Agenda Setting:

Truman Doctrine: Setting the post-war foreign policy agenda


22nd Amendment

Candidate-centered politics in presidential elections 

            Eisenhower wanted by both Democrats and Republicans for 1952

            Donald Trump as an example of this


Eisenhower as the Father of Presidential Management:

Eisenhower's Legacy: Managing the Federal Government

Organizations are:

Can you get the Federal Government to operate in a unified manner?

Eisenhower's answer:


Ike's management of the presidency:

1. Delegation

            President's role

            Cabinet Secretaries role

2. Interagency process--institutionalizing coordination

3. Staff System

            Sherman Adams' role


JFK and Advising

The importance of presidential advisors

Dual role of Cabinet officers

Three kinds of Cabinet Officers



Essence of Presidential Power: (Neustadt)


LBJ's political method: Finding out who wants what and doling out favors

His view of legislation: Bargaining and negotiation

LBJ on Civil Rights:

            Civil Rights Act 1964

            Voting Rights Act 1965

His persuasion method on Civil Rights:

Persuasion in a fragmented society:

Timing and Persuasion:

1964 Election

*The Great Society:



*Electoral Realignment

Democrats loss of the South

Impact of 1950s and 1960s changes on New Deal Coalition

            Civil Rights -- successes and failures

            Expansion of federal power -- Civil Rights and Great Society

            Failure in Vietnam

Division in Democratic Party Over Civil Rights

            Losing the South

Labor and urban North

LBJ's challengers in the 1968 election

Nixon's coalition

            The Silent Majority/Quiet Americans

            Southern Strategy

George Wallace

The Southern Presidential vote in 1968 and 1972 vs. previous years


The Administrative Presidency under Nixon

White House control/management of the government

Domestic Council

            John Ehrlichman

National Security Council staff

            Henry Kissinger

Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman

Problems with the Administrative Presidency

            Cabinet Government?


                        Line vs. Staff

                        Their definition of their responsibilities

                        Staff Protecting the President

            *Feeding Nixon's Flaws

                        *Nixon and constant crisis atmosphere

                        *Enemies List




Cambodia Bombing and leaks

*Secret investigative unit -- Plumbers

            *Their links to the White House and CREP

*Watergate Burglary of DNC Headquarters 6/17/72



            *Grand Jury

            *Special Prosecutor

            *Washington Post

*The Tapes

*Nixon's position on the tapes

*Saturday Night Massacre

*Elliott Richardson

*Revelations in the Tapes:

            *Nixon part of cover-up

            *Abuse of Power

            *Nixon's claims of innocence

*House Judiciary Committee and articles of impeachment

*Spiro Agnew

*Gerald Ford

*The Pardon