POLI/INTL 105 Fall 2011

Review Sheet: EXAM 1:

            The following list of terms is really just an outline of the lectures I've given. It will also include some terms selected from the readings; these are terms that I think are particularly important aspects of the reading (Which is a polite way of saying, if you are not doing the reading, you better start doing the reading). The readings support things we've talked about in class, explain them, and flesh out some concepts. Terms that are dealt with primarily in the readings will be designated with an (*).

            This looks big, BUT remember most of these are things that can be defined in one sentence; they are bits and pieces of larger ideas and concepts. And if you've been in class and have done the readings there should be nothing new here.

The test consists of 60 multiple-choice questions. It is designed to take you about 50-60 minutes, though usually when I give tests of similar length and content most people don't need all the time I allow. You will have 60 minutes of class time for the exam.

If you have any questions, feel free to call me, or come to office hours.

 

List of terms:

The nature of the International System:

*A definition of the international system

*definition of a globalized world

*definition of globalization

*the world as anarchy

the world as institutionalizing

Domestic Politics (DP) vs. International Politics (IP):

DP as hierarchy

 

DP compared with IP:

1. Central Authority:

DP: Centralization of power

IP: no central authority:

every nation for itself

*sovereignty

self-reliance

On the other hand:

*laws, treaties, institutions (UN, WTO)

Do powerful states create an informal central authority?

 

2. Conflict Resolution and Force:

DP:      regulated conflict, political and legal processes

Force is illegitimate except by authorized officials

IP:       

conflict unregulated, resort to self-reliance, the use of force. If you win the war your use of force was legitimate.

On the other hand: powerful make rules for resolving conflict, rules to create justice, trend toward negotiation not violence

 

For IP, two views

1.      anarchy: might makes right

2.      institutionalization: world is evolving toward nation-state cooperation through institutions

 

Basic Points:

            Anarchy vs. institutionalization

            The international system is evolving

 

Evolution of the International System:

1. Age of Empires

European (western) domination of the world

*imperialism

example of Africa during and after colonial era

importance of industrial revolution in European dominance

popular sovereignty vs. monarchies

 

2. Creation of Nation-State system

*Holy Roman Empire

*Rise of nationalism and Protestantism Reformation in Europe

*Thirty Years War

*Treaty of Westphalia or Peace of Westphalia (1648)

*sovereign states

power in the hands of the state (individual monarchs), not religion or empire

*national self-determination

Napoleon's challenge to the system and defeat

 

3. *Concert of Europe

*Congress of Vienna

*Multipolar system

Great Powers (5)

colonialism

*Balance of Power

Rules of Balance of Power

England's role

*Prussian/German challenge to Balance of Power

WWI

 

4. Interwar period and WWII

Changes in power balance/fate of the old great powers -- England, Germany, France, A-H, Russia

*Fourteen Points

*Treaty of Versailles

*League of Nations

U. S. rise to power

1920s' economic boom and the Depression

Japanese/Italian/German aggression

*Munich agreement of 1938 and appeasement

Axis vs. Allies: WWII

 

5. Cold War

Superpowers

1. *Bipolar Balance of Power

            *US containment of the USSR

*dividing the world/collecting allies

*NATO

*Warsaw Pact

2. Regional Conflict

*European Decolonization

In what parts of the world?

Rules (2)

nations asked to choose sides; competition for allies

3. Nuclear Weapons

4. Ideology

 

Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War

*perestroika and glasnost

*The collapse of the USSR and its future

Collapse of Cold war international system      

Reasons why the Cold War ended?

 

Post-Cold War system:

1.      *unipolarity

*US as hyperpower

2.      * New Bipolarity -- US vs. China

3.      Tripolarity – US, India, China

4.      *Multipolarity -- US, Russia, Japan, E. U., China, India? 

 

 Global Trends 2025

*Rise in power of developing states: led by China and India

            *Also, Russia, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, Iran

            *Declining in power? EU, Japan

*Rise in power of non-state actors

*US still dominant, but less dominant

*shift of wealth and power from West to East

*state capitalism

*Key uncertainties

            *Middle East transitions

            *Energy, food, climate change

*A more complex multipolar system

*BRICs

*Four Scenarios

*Demographics – youth population of nations

 

Ideas: 

*Realism

*The security dilemma

 

Propositions about realism

*the state is the only actor that matters

1.      *the goal -- power

2.      *morality, ideas, domestic politics?

3.      *cause of the quest for power?

                                                              i.      human nature

                                                            ii.      *anarchy

4.      *foreign policy?

5.      *and peace achieved through?

6.      *Unipolarity will not last

*know that there are several different types of realism, but you don’t need to know all the differences

 

*Definition of power

*Traditional views: hard Power

*Power as capabilities

*Soft power 

 

*Tools of Foreign Policy

*Sticks and carrots

 

*Idealism or Liberalism

1.      more than competition exists in the international system

2.      common interests?

3.      morality, ethics, values

4.      *commerce – free trade

5.      *global marketplace

6.      law

7.      institutions

Sovereignty

            good and bad aspects

            Nazi Germany

treaties

Enforcement

International Court of Justice

 

Constructivism

1.      nation-states are not all alike

2.      political culture influences foreign policy

3.      form of government influences foreign policy

4.      history, political context matter

5.      domestic politics matters

states have an identity that shapes the way they interact with other states

Examples: Russia, China, US

 

*Marxism

*World System Theory

*Feminism

 

 

Nationalism:

*definition      

state (territorial entity)

government: type and regime

nation

Interaction among characteristics (nation-state fit)

nation-state fit and nationalism

*self-determination

Ethno-nationalist wars

Failed states

South Africa vs. Yugoslavia – the importance of leadership

 

Transnationalism:

religion

Social theories

Economic theories

Political theories

*Transnational actors

*non-governmental organizations

*non-state actor

Global marketplace

pros and cons of transnationalism

nationalism and transnationalism as challengers to the nation-state system