Definition of Motivation
(3-part model)
Direction: what an individual chooses to do when presented with a set of alternatives
Intensity: the strength of a response in the chosen direction
Persistence: how long a person continues to devote effort in the chosen direction.
Definition of Motivation 
(4-part model) 
Stimulus -- arousal
  • activates decision process
  • created by needs
  • answers question "WHAT?"
  • "content" models
  • Direction -- selection among alternatives
    • represents a decision
    • answers question "HOW?"
    • "process" models
    • maintains (continue) effort
    • "reinforcement" models
    • adjustment of behaviors / perceptions over time
    • no particular models offered here
    • no one plays golf in the dark

  • Motivation predicts effort, not performance
  • Motivation is multifaceted (several needs may operate at once)
  • A satisfied need does not motivate