Leonard A. Smock
Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biology


Life Sciences Building
Department of Biology 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
1000 West Cary Street 
P. O. Box 842012 
Richmond, Virginia 23284-2012 USA 
Ph#: 804-828-1562 
Fax: 804-828-0503 
E-mail: lsmock@saturn.vcu.edu 

Research interests: aquatic ecology; streams and wetlands; ecology of aquatic insects; water pollution 

My primary research interests focus on community to ecosystem level aspects of streams and riverine wetlands, especially low-gradient blackwater streams and their floodplains. Much of my work has involved aspects of habitat utilization, resource partitioning, and the trophic and production ecology of aquatic invertebrates. My work also examines linkages between invertebrates and detritus dynamics in stream channels with those in fringing floodplains. Other recent research efforts include the effects of changing land-use patterns on the biological structure of streams and the ecology of crayfish. 

Stream Ecology - Bio 514 



University of Illinois                           1964-1969 B.S. Biology

University of Illinois                           1969-1970 M.S. Zoology

University of North Carolina              1970-1971 Ph.D. Environmental Biology

Professional Positions 

Aquatic Biology Branch                     1972-1974 Aquatic Biologist
U.S. Army Environmental
Hygiene Agency
Edgewood, Maryland

Virginia Commonwealth University    1979-1985 Assistant Professor

Virginia Commonwealth University    1985-1990 Associate Professor

Virginia Commonwealth University    1990-present Professor and Chair

Professional Affiliations

American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Ecological Society of America
North American Benthological Society
Societas Internationalis Limnologie

Honors and Awards 

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Recent Publications 

Kirk, D.J. and L.A. Smock. In press. Interspecific and intraspecific interactions between crayfish and hellgrammites and the influence of predatory fish. American Midland Naturalist.

Benke, A.C., A.D. Huryn, L.A. Smock and J.B. Wallace. 1999. Length-mass relationships for freshwater macroinvertebrates in North America with particular reference to the southeastern United States. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18:308-343.

Smock, L.A. 1999. Integrating wetlands into benthic science. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society 16:269-274.

Smock, L.A. 1999. Riverine floodplain forests of the southeastern United States: invertebrates in an aquatic-terrestrial ecotone. Chapter 7 in D. Batzer and S. Wissinger (editors). Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. John Wiley & Sons.

Pagels, J.F., L.A. Smock and S.H. Sklarew. 1998. The water shrew, Sorex palustris Richardson (Insectivora:Soricidae), and its habitat in Virginia. Brimleyana 25:120-13.

Smock, L.A. 1997. Organic matter dynamics in Buzzards Branch, a blackwater stream in Virginia, USA. In J.R. Webster and J.L. Meyer (editors). Stream organic matter budgets. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:54-58.

Smock, L.A. 1996. Macroinvertebrate movements: drift, colonization and emergence. Chapter 17 in F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti (editors). Methods in Stream Ecology. Academic Press, San Diego.

Fuss, C.L. and L.A. Smock. 1996. Spatial and temporal variation of microbial metabolism in a blackwater stream. Freshwater Biology 36:339-349.

Smock, L.A. and S. B. Gazzera. 1996. Effects of experimental acidification on a southeastern U.S.A. blackwater stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 11:81-90.

Balfour, D.L. and L.A. Smock. 1995. Distribution, age structure, and movements of the freshwater unionid mussel Elliptio complanata (Mollusca:Unionidae) in a headwater stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10:255-268.

Smock, L.A. 1994. Movements of invertebrates between stream channels and forested floodplains. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13:524-531.

Smock, L.A., L.C. Smith, J.B. Jones, Jr., and S.M. Hooper. 1994. Effects of drought and a hurricane on a coastal headwater stream. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 131:25-38.

Publications on Buzzards Branch 

Buzzards Branch

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This page was last updated on 1/1/02 

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