SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK
CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE I
Joseph Walsh, Instructor Office Hours: Tuesday 11:00 – 2:00,
Room 319 Raleigh Building and by appointment
828-8208 (W); 745-6365 (H) e-mail: email@example.com
Students with disabilities, who may need an accommodation to participate and maximize learning in this course, should contact the instructor promptly to discuss this issue.
Students are expected to abide by the policies of the VCU Honor System. These policies are published annually in the University Resource Guide.
Advanced Clinical Social Work Practice I. Semester course, 3 lecture hours, 3 credits. Pre- and/or co-requisites: Completion of Foundation Curriculum & SLWK 703. First of two courses on advanced clinical practice with individuals, families, couples, and groups. Extends knowledge and skills obtained in foundation courses. Continues a multi-theoretical orientation to intervention across fields of practice with emphasis on contemporary psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches and their empirical support. Emphasizes multidimensional assessment and the differential application of therapeutic, supportive, educational, and resource management strategies to complex problems of children, youth, and adults. Examines the interdisciplinary context of practice and the impact of diversity on clinical practice. Introduces topics in psychopharmacology related to social work intervention.
At the completion of this course, the student will be able to:
1. Understand the contemporary roles of the advanced clinical social work practitioner across fields of practice and within an interdisciplinary context.
2. Understand the characteristics of the clinical relationship and the dynamics, such as age, race, gender, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status, which influence it.
3. Understand the role of supervision, consultation, and self-evaluation as tools of continuing professional development.
4. Understand and critically analyze the role of theory in advanced clinical social work practice and the need for multidimensional assessment and multi-theoretical interventions.
5. Describe and critique salient features of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches to clinical practice in social work, including the major concepts and propositions underlying each.
6. Trace the history, development, and relevance of psychodynamic and cognitive- behavioral theoretical orientations in the field of social work.
7. Be familiar with major models of assessment and evaluation based on psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientations in the field of social work.
8. Select, use, and evaluate the processes of intervention derived from psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches.
9. Develop and evaluate the processes of intervention derived from psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches.
10. Demonstrate an awareness of ethical and value dilemmas in the delivery of clinical social work services and the skills to move toward conflict resolution.
11. Integrate knowledge of human behavior, research, and foundation content through the use of critical thinking skills.
12. Demonstrate knowledge of the role of psychopharmacology in the delivery of services to children, adolescents, and adults including the roles of the social worker in medication management.
Goldstein, E. G. (1995). Ego psychology and social work practice (2nd. ed.). New York: Free Press.
Leahy, R. L. (1996). Cognitive therapy: Basic principles and applications. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Reid, K. E. (1997). Social work practice with groups: A clinical perspective (2nd ed). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Unit I Defining clinical social work: Contemporary roles in advanced clinical social work; The use of theory across practice roles (therapeutic, supportive, educational, resource management); An introduction to clinical relationships with individuals, couples, groups, and families, and to a multi-theoretical approach; Interdisciplinary practice.
Unit II Psychodynamic theories and their application: Concepts, propositions, history, use, critical analysis, and empirical support of self-psychology, object relations, and ego psychology; Assessment principles and tools; Application to individuals, couples, groups, and families including planning, goal formulation, intervention, evaluation, and termination.
Unit III Cognitive Behavioral theory and its application: Concepts, propositions, history, use, critical analysis, and empirical support of social learning and cognitive theories; Assessment principles and tools; Application to individuals, couples, groups, and families including planning, goal formulation, intervention, evaluation, and termination.
This is pretty much a “no frills” course. As you have probably heard, I lead the dullest life of anyone on the faculty. I am well known for lacking imagination, and was in fact hired at a time when the School needed a Midwestern “hayseed” to round out its multicultural representation.
I believe that solid clinical practice skills are best developed through reading about theories and their applications, struggling with their logical, empirical, and practical bases, and applying them in the classroom and to clinical practice in the field and workplace. Our class sessions will thus consist of:
a. Instructor lectures
b. Student reports of field placement activities
c. Role-play activities
d. Discussion of the readings and homework assignments
e. Occasional video presentations.
A heavy emphasis in this course is the integration and transfer of learning to the field. I encourage your sharing of field and work experiences.
I expect that you will read for each class period and be prepared to discuss the readings from the perspective of your field placement or related clinical experiences. Class lectures and discussions will not necessarily cover all of the assigned readings, as I will attempt to respond to the particular needs and interests of students in focusing classroom activity.
You may meet with me during office hours or other arranged times to:
a. Ask questions about the course material and assignments
b. Review graded work
c. Get suggestions for further reading
d. Discuss other topics related to the course or to the social work profession in general, and
e. Talk informally about any other concerns (including the poetry of Emily Dickinson and the history of rock and roll music).
It is not necessary to make an appointment to meet during my office hours, although students who do so will have priority in case of conflicts. Regarding phone availability, you are encouraged to call my office during daytime hours, as I check my messages daily when I am not in. However, if I cannot be reached, and particularly if the matter is of some urgency, do not hesitate to call me at home, but not after 9:00 p.m. (when I am tired and getting ready for bed)
All students must complete the practice theory application paper (at the end of the semester), and the attendance and participation grade also applies to all students. Otherwise you have choices regarding course assignments, selecting any two of the five “options” described below.
Keep in mind when selecting assignments that there is variation in their due dates, as noted in their full descriptions and on the weekly class schedule. You must inform me in writing of the assignments you choose by September 26, the fourth class of the semester. I will provide all students with an assignment agreement form for that purpose.
Option A: Practice theory concept paper 30%
Option B: Field placement journal 30%
Option C: Two quizzes 30%
Option D: The intervention videotape 30%
Option E: Annotated bibliography 30%
Practice theory application paper (required) 30%
Class attendance and participation 10%
The course grading scale is based on ten percentage points, so that 90-100% = A, 80-89.9% = B, 70-79.9% = C, 60-69.9% = D, and below 60% is failing.
In evaluating the written assignments, I use the following guidelines:
A: All or most aspects of the work are outstanding with regard to my normal expectations of students.
B: All content requirements are met and the overall quality is good.
C: Most content requirements are met but some are not adequately developed.
D - F: Major content areas of the assignment are not addressed or are not adequately developed.
All papers must be typed and double-spaced using one-inch margins, 12-point font, and APA reference style. Specific grading criteria are included with each assignment.
Students must limit the length of their papers in accordance with the instructions for each assignment.
Written assignments must be turned in no later than the class period of the due date unless I approve an extension. Late papers may be lowered by up to one letter grade per week.
Extensions on assignments can be negotiated, so don’t be shy about asking!
CLASS ATTENDANCE AND PARTICIPATION
Attendance and participation counts for 10% of the course grade. The participatory nature of this course leads to my expectation that you attend every class session in its entirety. In this way you assume responsibility for helping to create a mutual learning environment for all of us. Your participation is further encouraged because social workers typically function in agencies as team members, and need to develop the ability to defend their perspectives and challenge those of others in a spirit of collaborative learning. If you cannot attend a class, please inform me in advance if possible.
Each student’s classroom comments should reflect sensitivity to the feelings of classmates and be constructive in tone.
A “non-graded” portion of this assignment involves each student, with a classmate, leading a 10-15 minute discussion of the major points of one week’s readings. That is, the two students, who sign up in advance for a particular week, will prepare 3-4 questions for informal class discussion as a way of introducing the new material. I will distribute a sign-up sheet for this purpose. This is no big deal – don’t get stressed about it – it’s just a way to generate student participation!
All students begin the semester with 8 out of a possible 10 points for the attendance and participation grade. One point will be deducted for any missed class. At the end of the semester, one or two additional points may be added to your grade to recognize a significant level of participation in class discussions.
No student who misses more than five classes can receive a passing grade for the course.
(To be given October 18 and November 29, both Tuesdays, from 11:15-12:00)
Two short-answer essay quizzes will be given during the semester, one on ego psychology and the other on cognitive/behavior theory. Each quiz will consist of six questions, of which you must answer any five, based on the reading assignments and class discussions. The quizzes will take no more than 45 minutes to complete and must be taken outside of the class hours on those dates (or as arranged with the instructor). A range of possible questions will be distributed in class in advance of the quiz dates. Each question will be worth 20 points toward the final grade. Responses will be graded on the following criteria:
Inclusion of relevant content 50%
Appropriate use of concepts 50%
(4-5 pages long, due October 24)
All practice theories include major concepts (abstract ideas) which guide the actions of the practitioner. For this assignment, first choose a concept from a practice theory that interests you. Your choice may include
From ego psychology - Countertransference, defensive functions (any of those not highlighted in class), developmental reflection, direct influence, drive, education, ego functions (any), exploration/description/ventilation, insight, mastery and competence, person-situation reflection, object relations, sustaining, structuring, transference.
By the time this assignment is due, we will not have covered the cognitive or behavior theories in any detail. However, if you have an interest in one of these theories, feel free to select your topic from the list below. I will be happy to work with you to develop the topic.
From cognitive theory – Automatic thoughts, cognitive distortions, core beliefs, emotion, problem solving, schema, self-talk.
From behavior theory – Conditioning (operant or classical), modeling, punishment, rehearsal, reinforcement.
Once you have selected a concept:
1. Define and describe the concept (1 page) (25% of the total grade)
2. Describe how the concept may be utilized in both the assessment (25%) and intervention phases (25%) of work with clients (2-3 pages).
3. Discuss limitations, if any, of the concept in providing a basis for understanding clients’ problem situations in your interest area or agency setting (1 page) (15%)
The remaining 10% of the grade will be based on the quality of the paper’s citations and
Your paper should demonstrate evidence of familiarity with the literature about the chosen concept. At least six citations are required for this assignment, and at least three must be from sources other than the textbooks.
(5-7 pages long, due November 7)
From the third through the tenth weeks of the semester (September 12 – October 31), keep a journal of your reactions to, and reflections about, field placement experiences you think are important to your development as a clinical social worker. Over time these entries will become a record of your preoccupations, commonly experienced problems, and challenges.
For this assignment:
1. Make entries into a journal on a weekly basis, focusing on any of the following:
a. Your intervention practices (successes, failures, preferences),
b. Aspects of clinical practice that consume or charge your energy,
c. Types of clients that trigger your sense of competence or self-doubt,
d. Your experiences with supervision or interprofessional practice, and
e. Any other issues significant to your professional development
Limit the length of your entries to one or two pages per week (these may be typewritten or neatly handwritten).
2. Use the journal as the basis for a paper in which you, through description and analysis, develop one or two major issues relevant to your learning as a clinical social work practitioner. Be sure to convey the process of your thinking with regard to each issue (how it changed or evolved) during the eight-week period.
3. The journal must be turned in but will be a minor consideration in the grading. You may hand in your journal at intervals, if you wish, and I will read and comment on its content and themes.
At least six citations must be integrated into this assignment, and at least two must be from sources other than the textbooks.
Completeness of the journal 15%
Presentation of themes 30%
Reflective and analytic capacity 30%
Quality and use of citations 15%
Quality of presentation 10%
(Due by November 21)
This assignment requires two students to work together in the production of a 50-minute videotape, simulating an intervention with a real or hypothetical client in which ego psychology, cognitive, behavioral, or cognitive-behavioral techniques are utilized. The assignment must be completed in the following way:
1. Select a type of client and a problem or challenge faced by the client. One student must portray the worker and the other student must portray the client.
2. Prepare and record a 50-minute intervention session (you are not required to turn in a script). The intervention strategies used must be drawn from one of the theoretical bases noted earlier. Do not mix theories for this assignment. Conduct the session without third-person commentary.
3. Turn in a short write-up along with the video, including:
a. An introduction to the setting and the client (one page)
b. A rationale for using your approach with the particular client (one page)
c. Notations indicating where particular interventions are being used on the tape (using “minute” and “second” indicators as guideposts)
d. A critique of the intervention, including its strong and weaker points (one page)
e. Where you will go from here with the client (if you plan to meet with the client again) (one-half page)
f. Three annotated references other than course texts that support your use of the intervention strategies with the client.
No one but myself will see the video, and I will return it after the assignment is graded. Both students will be given the same grade, as I will assume that you participated equally in the process.
This is not intended to be a professional quality session! I only want to see if you can use good judgment in applying classroom material to a clinical session.
Completeness of the videotape 10%
Justification of the approach 15%
Suitability of the intervention strategies 40%
Critique and follow-up plan 25%
Quality and use of references 10%
(5-7 pages long, due November 14)
This assignment option provides you with an opportunity to investigate a special area of your interest in more depth than might be possible with the other semester assignments.
1. First, select a specific clinical practice topic area. Examples from my past students include the use of object relations therapy with clients who have borderline personality disorder, empirically validated interventions for clients with post-traumatic stress disorder, and the importance of the clinical relationship with clients who have schizophrenia. You need to share your topic idea with me in advance so that I can help you to focus it.
2. The paper will consist of 12 paragraphs. In the first paragraph you need to a) introduce the topic, b) state the nature of your interest in it, and c) explain why it is relevant to clinical social work practice in general.
3. Conduct a literature review of related articles or book chapters (no books, please) until you have what you believe to be twelve (10) substantive citations. I have no preference for how you go about searching for sources - I only expect that they will be of good quality. If you wish, you can share one or two citations with me for my reactions.
4. For each citation (which should be presented APA style at the beginning), write one paragraph in which you a) describe its most important points, and c) describe what you learned from it.
5. The closing paragraph should consist of a) a summary of your major points of learning, and b) areas of further learning in the topic area that will be important to you.
Quality of citations 35%
Quality of descriptions 20%
Ability to describe your learning 20%
Summary points 15%
Quality of preparation and writing 10%
(5-7 pages long, due December 10)
This assignment requires that you select one of the major theories addressed in this course - ego psychology (perhaps featuring object relations theory), cognitive theory, behavior theory, or the combined cognitive/behavior theory - and apply it to a practice situation with which you are presently or have recently been involved, or have worked with in a past field practicum or job. Your client system may be an individual, family, or group. Please address the following:
1. Define clinical social work practice within your setting, and state if and how this theory, as used there, is consistent with the values of the social work profession (1 page).
2. Provide a theory-driven problem statement and assessment of the client system (individual, family, or group). This should include a rationale for how the problem occurred, based on the theory’s concepts and nature of problems that the theory suggests (2 pages).
3. Formulate an intervention plan that includes goals, intervention strategies, and criteria you and the client system will use to determine whether the problem is resolved.
4. Summarize your intervention activities to this point (and the outcome, if the intervention is complete) (2-3 pages)
Remember that all theories include assumptions about human nature, the nature of problems, and the nature of change. Be sure to address the impact of diversity, if relevant (age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status), on your work with the client system.
At least six citations are required for this assignment, and at least three must be from sources other than the textbooks.
Thoroughness of theory description 20%
Quality of assessment 20%
Quality of intervention plan 20%
Quality of intervention 20%
Quality and use of citations 10%
Organization and presentation 10%
(Featuring the poetry of Emily Dickinson)
Specific practice application topics for each class session will be determined by student interest
Important note: The instructor reserves the right to make changes in the course calendar if he deems it necessary. Any changes will be announced in class.
August 29 Introduction to the Course
“I dwell in possibility -
A fairer house than prose -
More numerous of windows -
Superior - for doors”
September 12 Ego Psychology I
“Growth of Man - like Growth of Nature -
Gravitates within -
Atmosphere, and Sun endorse it -
But it stir - alone –“
Defining clinical social work practice
Characteristics of effective practitioners
Overview of ego psychology
Intervention technique: Exploration/Description/Ventilation
Reading: Goldstein – Introduction, 2, 8 (166-176)
September 19 Ego Psychology II
“A Charm invests a face
Imperfectly beheld -
The Lady dare not lift her Veil
For fear it be dispelled -
But peers beyond her mesh
And wishes - and denies -
Lest Interview - annul a want
That Image - satisfies -”
Major concepts of ego psychology
Ego Functions (and ego mastery)
Processes of coping and adaptation
Intervention technique: Person-situation reflection
Basic models of group intervention
Readings: Goldstein – 3, 5
Reid 1, 2 (30-38)
September 26 Ego Psychology III
“The Soul unto itself
Is an imperial friend -
Or the most agonizing Spy
An Enemy - could send”
Intervention technique: Developmental reflection
Therapeutic factors in group intervention
Readings: Goldstein – 4, 7
Reid - 3
October 3 Ego Psychology IV
“Could mortal lip divine
The undeveloped Freight
Of a delivered syllable
‘Twould crumble with the weight”
The client-worker relationship
Intervention techniques: Sustainment, Education
The person as group member
Readings: Goldstein – 6 (113-130), 9
Reid - 5
October 10 Ego Psychology V
“Tell all the Truth but tell it slant -
Success in Circuit lies
Too bright for our infirm delight
The Truth’s superb surprise
As lightning to the Children eased
With explanation kind
The Truth must dazzle gradually
Or every man be blind - “
Diverse and oppressed populations
Intervention techniques: Direct Influence, Partializing
The social worker in the group
Readings: Goldstein – 10
Reid - 6
October 17 Ego Psychology VI
“Each that we lose takes part of us;
A crescent still abides,
Which like the moon, some turbid night,
Is summoned by the tides”
Special populations Quiz #1 tomorrow
Readings: Goldstein – 11
Reid - 4
October 24 Social Work Roles in Psychopharmacology
“The Heart asks Pleasure - first -
And then - Excuse from Pain -
And then - those little Anodynes
That deaden suffering -”
Group intervention skills I Concept Paper due
Readings: Instructor’s handouts
Reid - 7
October 31 Cognitive-Behavior Theory I
“Much Madness is divinest Sense -
To a discerning Eye -
Much Sense - the starkest Madness
‘Tis the Majority
In this, as All, prevail –“
Readings: Leahy – 1, 2
November 7 Cognitive-Behavior Theory II
“A Deed knocks first at Thought
And then - it knocks at Will
That is the manufacturing spot”
Cognitive theory Field placement journal due
Readings: Leahy – 3, 4
November 14 Cognitive-Behavior Theory III
“Your thoughts don’t have words every day
They come a single time
Like signal esoteric sips
Of the communion wine
Which while you taste so native seems
So easy so to be
You cannot comprehend its price
Nor its infrequency”
Behavioral interventions Annotated bibliography due
Readings: Leahy – 5, 8
November 21 Cognitive-Behavior Theory IV
“A word is dead
When it is said,
I say it just
Begins to live
Cognitive interventions Intervention Videotape due
Group intervention skills II
Readings: Leahy - 6
Reid - 8
November 28 Cognitive-Behavior Theory V
“I gained it so -
By Climbing slow -
By Catching at the Twigs that grow
Between the Bliss - and me”
Process of case conceptualization Quiz #2 tomorrow
Readings: Leahy – 7, 10
December 5 Cognitive-Behavior Theory VI
“I made slow Riches but my Gain
Was steady as the Sun
And every Night, it numbered more
Than the preceding One”
Social worker / client relationship issues
Readings: Leahy – 11, 12
Written assignment #2 is due by Friday, December 9, at 4:00 p.m. It may be delivered to my mailbox in the Raleigh building. Papers mailed by out-of-town students must be postmarked by the due date.
SLWK 704 SUPPLIMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Defining Clinical Social Work
Goldstein, E. G. (1996). What is clinical social work? Looking back to move ahead. Clinical Social Work Journal, 24(1), 89-104.
Swenson, C. R. (1994). Clinical social work. In R. L. Edwards & J. G. Hopps (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed.) (pp. 502-511). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
Psychodynamic Theory Presentations
Bloom, J. (1992). The triple lens of contemporary psychoanalytic vision. Clinical Social Work Journal, 20, 131-135.
Berzoff, J. (Ed.) (1996). Inside out and outside in: Psychodynamic clinical theory and practice in contemporary multicultural contexts. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Floskas, C. (1993). On the proposal of using psychoanalytic ideas in systems theory: A discussion paper. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 14, 9-15.
Goldstein, E. G. & Noonan, M. (1999) Short-term treatment and social work practice: An integrative perspective. New York: Free Press.
Pessin, D. E., & Young, T. M. (1993). Ego psychology and self-psychology in social work practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 21, 57-71.
Saari, C. (1986). Clinical social work treatment. New York: Gardner.
St. Clair, M. (1999). Object relations and self-psychology: An introduction (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Strean, H. S. (1979). Psychoanalytic theory and social work practice. New York: Free Press.
Cognitive / Behavioral Theory Presentations
Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Burbach, D. J., Borduin, C. M., & Peake, T. H. (1988). Cognitive approaches to brief psychotherapy. In T. H. Peake, C. M. Borduin, & R. P. Archer (Eds.), Brief psychotherapies: Changing frames of mind (57-84). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Granvold, D. K. (Ed.). (1994). Cognitive and behavioral treatment: Methods and applications. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Hawton, K., Salkovskis, P. M., Kirk, J., & Clark, D. M. (Eds.) (1998). Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martin, J. I. (1993). Self psychology and cognitive treatment: An integration. Clinical Social Work Journal, 21, 385-394.
Mattaini, M. A. (1997). Clinical practice with individuals. Washington, DC: NASW Press.
Reid, W. J. & Epstein, L. (1972). Task-centered casework. New York: Columbia University Press.
Other Theories and General Topics
DeJong, P. & Miller, S. (1995). How to interview for client strengths. Social Work, 40, 729-736.
Durst, D. (1994). Understanding the client/social worker relationship in a multicultural setting: Implications for practice. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 3, 29-41.
Frankl, V. E. (1988). The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy. New York: Meridian.
Garvin, C. D. & Seabury, B. A. (1997). Interpersonal practice in social work. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Germain, C. B. & Gitterman, A. (1996). The life model of social work practice: Advances in theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Golan, N. (1978). Treatment in crisis situations. New York: Free Press.
Karls, J. M. & Wandrei, K. E. (Eds.) (1994). Person-in-environment system: The PIE classification system for social functioning problems. Washington, D. C.: National Association of Social Workers.
McMillen, J. C. (1992). Attachment theory and clinical social work. Clinical Social Work Journal, 20, 205-218.
Perlman, H. H. (1979). Relationship: The heart of helping people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Safran, J. D. & Greenberg, L. S. (Eds.) (1991). Emotion, psychotherapy, and change. New York: Guilford.
Saleeby, D. (1996). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social Work, 41, 296-305.
Sexton, T. L. & Whiston, S. C. (1994). The status of the counseling relationship: An empirical review, theoretical implications, and research directions. The Counseling Psychologist, 22(1), 6-78.
Allen-Meares, P. (1995). Social work with children and adolescents. New York: Longman.
Anechiarico, B. (1990). Understanding and treating sex offenders from a self-psychological perspective: The missing piece. Clinical Social Work Journal, 18, 281-292.
Appleby, G. A. & Anastas, J. W. (1998). Not just a passing phase: Social work with gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. New York: Columbia University Press.
Beckett, J. O., Dungee-Anderson, D., Cox, L., & Daly, A. (1997). African Americans and multicultural interventions. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 67, 540-561.
Berger, S. M. (1993). Chronic fatigue syndrome: A self psychological perspective. Clinical Social Work Journal, 21, 71-84.
Bolton, C. & Camp, D. (1989). The post-funeral ritual in bereavement counseling and grief work. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 13(3/4), 49-59.
Bramblett, R., Wodarski, J. S., & Thyer, B. A. (1991). Social work practice with antisocial children: A review of current issues. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 15, 169-182.
Briere, J. (1996). Therapy for adults molested as children: Beyond survival (2nd ed.), New York: Springer.
Caple, F. S., Salcido, R. M., & di Cecco, J. (1995). Engaging effectively with culturally diverse families and children. Social Work in Education, 17(3), 159-170.
Cohen, B. (1985). A cognitive approach to the treatment of offenders. British Journal of Social Work, 15, 619-633.
Constable, R., Flynn, J., & McDonald, S. (Eds.) (1996). School social work: Practice and research perspectives. Chicago, Ill: Lyceum.
Croyle, R. T. (1992). Appraisal of health threats: Cognition, motivation, and social comparison. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 165-182.
Culbertson, R. (1995). The case for social work. The Hospice Journal, 10, 21-22.
Davis, M., Eschelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (1988). The relaxation and stress workbook. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Efron, D., & Moir, R. (1996). Short-term co-led intensive group work with adult children of alcoholics. Social Work With Groups, 19, 117-127.
Eldridge, N. S., Mencher, J., & Slater, S. (1993). The conundrum of mutuality in psychotherapy: A lesbian dialogue. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley Centers for Research on Women.
Gallagher, M. M., Leavitt, K. S. & Kimmel, H. P. (1995). Mental health treatment of cumulatively/repetitively traumatized children. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 65(3), 205-237.
Goldapple, G. C., & Montgomery, D. (1993). Evaluating a behaviorally based intervention to improve client retention in therapeutic community treatment for drug dependency. Research on Social Work Practice, 3, 21-39.
Goldberg, M. (1995). Substance-abusing women: False stereotypes and real needs. Social Work, 40, 789-798.
Hendricks, J. (1995). The meaning of reminiscence and life review. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Kurtz, L. (1987). Three approaches to understanding self-help groups. Social Work with Groups, 10, 69-80.
Lee, M. Y. & Greene, G. J. (1999). A social constructivist framework for integrating cross-cultural issues in teaching clinical social work. Journal of Social Work Education, 35(1), 21-37.
Lewchain, S., & Sweeney, S. (1997). A developmental approach to the group treatment of adult children of alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 15, 51-62.
Littrel, J., & Mazel, D. (1991). The influence of self concept on change in client behaviors: A review. Research on Social Work Practice, 1, 46-67.
Lukton, R. C. (1992). Gender as an element in the intersubjective field: The female therapist and male patient. Clinical Social Work Journal, 20, 153-167.
Mishne, J. M. (1996). Therapeutic challenges in clinical work with adolescents. Clinical Social Work Journal, 24(2), 137-152.
Morgan, K. S. (1997). Why lesbians choose therapy: Presenting problems, attitudes, and political concerns. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 2(1), 49-63.
O’Leary, E. (1996). Counseling older adults: Perspectives, approaches, and research. London: Chapman and Hall.
Padesky, C. A. (1988). Attaining and maintaining positive lesbian identity: A cognitive therapy approach. Women and Therapy, 8(1/2), 145-156.
Palmer, N. (1997). Resilience on adult children of alcoholics: A nonpathological approach to social work practice. Health and Social Work, 22, 201-208.
Peled, E., Eisikovits, Z., Enosh, G., & Winstok, Z. (2000). Choice and empowerment for battered women who stay: Toward a constructivist model. Social Work, 45(1), 9-25.
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