What are primary and secondary storage in computer systems? Describe how each is used.
Used alone the IT term 'storage' applies to secondary storage. Name and briefly describe
four devices commonly used in business systems for storage.
Of secondary storage devices, name two that have been in use for several decades
and two that came into use more recently.
Discuss HDD and SSD. How do they compare in terms of speed and cost? How are they similar?
What advantages does SSD have over HDD?
Automatic tiered storage is a relatively new technology. Describe it and give examples of its use.
What is 'volatitily' in storage devices? Name a commonly used volatile storage device and two more
permanent secondary storage devices.
How is tape storage used in business and enterprise computer systems? How does it differ from, and what advantages does
it offer over disk storage.
Is this statement true or false? 'Magnetic media store data permanently.' Explain your answer.
Either T or F may earn the point.
There are several active tape storage robots within several blocks of Snead Hall, and lots of others
in data centers everywhere. How are they used?
Is this statement true of false? 'Tape storage robots are relatively new technology.' Explain your answer.
What is 'near-line' storage? What is 'on-line' storage? What storage devices are sequential and which allow
Name and describe storage and equipment involved in EDP from the 1900s into the 1960s,
before computers were involved.
Name and describe these recent and current HDD interfaces: PATA, SCSI, SATA, SAS. Google
what is the fastest SAS and what is fastest SATA and be prepared to state the speed.
When did IDE technology come into widespread use? What is it? It enables SMART, ZDR,
and LBA. Name and describe each of these acronyms and how they work to improve
drive performance and avoid failure.
Describe in words and/or sketches these features of HDD geometry: Platter, Track,
Cylinder, Head, Sector, Cluster.
How many bytes are in a sector on a current HDD? What is a common cluster size?
Cylinders are the basic unit of storage allocation on a HDD. What is a cylinder?
Is this statement true or false? An HDD with 6 read/write heads can access 6 cylinders simultaneously.
Explain your answer.
What phrase best describes the sequence of large, contiguous data sets on a disk? It's always the
quickest way to read or copy data to or from a disk.
Describe the delays involved in disk access that don't affect solid state drives: Seek and Rotation.
Name and describe these addressing schemes for HDD: CHS, LBA.
Slack Space and Fragmentation seriously degrade capacity and performnace of
disk stoorage. Describe these terms and how their effects are mitigated by system managers.
Explain this statement and descrbe a way to really delete data from a disk:
Using the GUI or command line to delete a file on a disk doesn't really delete it.
Describe RAID technology in sketches or words. Using HDD with 1 TeraByte of capacity each,
show the amounts of storage available and lost to redundancy for a RAID0 with three disks,
A RAID1 with two disks, and a RAID3+ with 5 disks. (RAID3+ is as discussed in class.)
What is RAID technology? Expand the acronymn and describe how higher-level RAIDs are used.
Is this statement true or false? With RAID technology a business does not need to do backup their data.
Explain your answer.
Is this statement true or false? A RAID0 is more likely to fail than a single disk drive. Explain your answer.
Explain how SSD and Flash Memory are similar and how they differ.
Is this statement true or false? Remote disk drives provide the same features for backup as tape.
Explain your answer.
Discuss methods of attaching storage: DAS, NAS, and SAN. Answer these questions in your response:
Which classes of machines allow massive DAS? Why is NAS not very scalable? How does SAN help solve
scalability issues of NAS?
Discuss transaction logging and backup for business and enterprise systems. Describe a traditional
approach to logging and backup. What's the most important feature of backup systems? Why is tape an ideal
medium for logging transactions and backing up data? Besides recovery from a system disaster,
what's the use for transaction logs and backup sets?
Suppose a system logs transactions remotely, does a full backup on weekends,
does incremental backups Monday thru Thursday. The storage system fails Wednesday afternoon and
can't be restarted, but there is a spare. What are the steps to recover the system to the point of failure?
Is this statement true or false? Hardware failure is the #1 reason for lost data. Explain your answer.
How do midrange and mainframe computers mitigate the risk of their relatively huge RAMs failing?