lecture 6 - Rome

(from East;
non-IndoEuropean language)

Bronze Diver
Etruscan, 5th Cent. B.C.

The Etruscans influenced early Roman Art with architecture and sculpture:
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities - The Louvre
Etruscan Art - Visual Arts Cork

Other Latin (or Italian) tribes were also in the region:
Some Ancient Peoples of Southern Italy - Naples: Life, Death & Miracles
Latins (Italic Tribe) - Wikipedia

Future site of Rome settled, according to both to legend & recent discovery, about 753 B.C. (mud huts, thatch huts)
Kingship overthrown; evolves into rule by Patrician class, eventually their descendants becoming the Senate.
Concept of regional citizen - 1st Kings of Rome were probably Etruscan; citizens could change domicile without penalty.

Republic - 509 BC
Senatorial government established.
Art influenced by Greek colonies in Italy.
'Unification' of Italy - c. 350 - 275 BC; Punic Wars (against Carthage) 264 - 201 B.C.

Funerary stele - 2nd - 1st cent. B.C.

Greece subjugated by 146 B.C. (Greco-Roman period)

Head of a man in 'pitiless realism' style
Republic, 1st cent. B.C.


Head of Female Northern Barbarian, Gallo-Roman
Gilded Bronze, 15cm. height, 1st cent. B.C.

Gallo-Roman France - Destinations France

The Roman portrait artist was highly skilled in portraying personality traits -
including flaws such as incompetence or arrogance. This period cannot be said to be strictly idealized,
although art was also used as an element of statecraft or 'propaganda'.

Portrait of Pompey, c. 55 BC
His portrait expresses both vacillation & good nature

Julius Caesar, assassinated 44 BC

Empire - 27 BC

'Emperorship' established
'Augustus', great nephew of Caesar, appointed by Senate.
This sculpture of him from 20 B.C.; 6' 8"
Augustus Prima-Porta - The Vatican

79 AD - Pompeii Destroyed; wall paintings survive

Portrait of a Girl - 1st century A.D. - terra cotta

c. 98 - 136 A.D. - Buildings of Trajan and Hadrian.
Discussion: Column of Trajan; the Pantheon.

Hadrian (patron of the arts)

Marcus Aurelius - Equestrian statue, c. 175 A.D.

The Pantheon and Hadrian’s Building Program
- Art History Presentation Archive
Hadrian and the Arts
- United Nations of Roma Victrix
Hadrian - Roman Empire.net

"Battle Against the Barbarians" -
shows beginnings of Medieval trend in art.
Carving from the sarcophagus of a general in the army of Marcus Aurelius (Left).

Portonaccio Sarcophagus - Wikipedia

Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus - Wikipedia

Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius - Musei Capitolini

235 - 284 A.D. 'Barracks' Emperors
The Barracks Emperors - Jay's Roman History

Emperor Caracalla - Marble, 215 A.D.
His portrait expresses his individual brutality

Marble portrait of the emperor Caracalla - Metropolitan Museum of Art
Caracalla, Emperor from AD 211 to 217 - The Louvre

Philip the Arab c. 204 - 249 A.D.
His portrait expresses his insecurity, c. 250 AD

Philip the Arab - Ancient History Encyclopedia
Philip the Arab - Wikipedia

285 A.D. - Diocletian introduced the system of Tetrarchs - divided rule to help govern and stabilize accession in the huge empire.
There were two co-emperors (Augusti), and two Caesars, who replaced the Augusti upon their death.
The sculpture below indicates the instability of the sprawling empire as the two Augusti shoulder each other for support.
Tetrarchy - Livius.org

Tetrarchs sculpture - 305 A.D.
The Tetrarchs Diocletian and Maximian (Above).
The Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs - Rome Across Europe
Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs - Wikipedia

Constantine - originally a tetrarch - unified rule again in 324 A.D.
312 - Constantine's successful battle against Maxentius ('Maximian') - led to the conversion of Constantine to Christianity.
The Late Roman Counter-Revolution: Diocletian, the Tetrarchy and Constantine - erenow.com
Constantine the Great and the Impact of His Sole Rule - Neo Byzantium

Giant sculpture of Constantine:
head & fragments survive. 315-30 A.D.
Colossal statue of Constantine- Bluffton University

330 A.D. - transfer of capital from Rome to Constantinople.
After his death, Constantine divided the empire among his sons.

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